• Westfield Academy and Central School
    Curriculum Outline for Health 9
    Designed in Spring 2003 by Jacob J. Hitchcock***

    Purpose Statement:

    The purpose of health education is to provide opportunities for students to develop knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for practicing lifelong health-enhancing behaviors.

    In correlation with the National Health Education Standards, upon completion of this course students will be able to:

    *comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease prevention.

    *access valid health information and health-promoting products and services.

    *practice both health-enhancing and risk-reducing behaviors.

    *analyze the influences of society, culture, media, technology, and physical environment
    on health.

    *utilize interpersonal communication skills to improve health and relationships.

    *practice and apply goal-setting, decision-making, problem-solving, and stress
    management skills to promote healthy behaviors.

    *advocate for personal, family, and community health.

    *develop understanding and respect for self and others.

    In correlation with the New York State Learning Standards for Health Education, upon completion of this course students will:

    *have the necessary knowledge and skills to establish and maintain physical fitness,
    participate in physical activity, and maintain personal health.

    *acquire the knowledge and ability necessary to create and maintain a safe and healthy

    *understand and be able to manage their personal and community resources.

    Core Objective of the Course:
    (In no specified order of application)

    This course will build upon the concepts and applications that were taught during the Health 7 section of the Westfield Academy and Central School (W.A.C.S.) Health curriculum

    Apply decision-making skills to address an issue.

    *identify factors that influence decision-making; such as peers, parents, media, values,
    emotions, esteem, habits and faith.
    *analyze various decision-making processes.
    *develop an individual decision-making process.
    *determine the influence of values, dreams and goals on the decision-making process.
    *predict the short- and long-term effects of risks.
    *identify steps in decision making.
    *weigh ethical implications of decisions.

    Analyze the factors that impact mental and emotional health.

    *describe factors that contribute to mental and emotional health; such as self-efficacy,
    resiliency, developmental assets, values, dreams, goals, positive-risk taking, sense of
    *describe factors that interfere with mental and emotional health; such as phobias,
    depression, chemical imbalances, unhealthy use of defense mechanisms, intolerance.
    *distinguish between eustress and distress.
    *describe the stress response and how it influences reactions or performance.
    *describe strategies for managing stressful situations.
    *identify school and community resources to assist with the prevention, intervention, and
    treatment of mental and emotional health problems.
    *analyze the positive and negative effects of environmental factors on mental health.
    *identify the healthy and unhealthy uses of defense mechanisms in daily life.

    Analyze the correlation between acceptance of responsibility and personal growth and maturity.

    *identify characteristics of an emotionally and socially mature person.
    *describe how developmental assets contribute to personal growth, success, and wellness.
    *recognize the difference between immediate and delayed gratification.
    *predict the outcomes of being responsible for one’s actions.
    *predict how an individual’s beliefs regarding gender roles may influence behavior,
    dreams and goals.
    *explain the impact of gender-specific messages on healthy behavior for males and
    females throughout the lifecycles; e.g., equity, respect, education, sports, relationships.
    Develop ways to manage and/or adapt to changes in relationships.

    *identify qualities of and ways to build healthy relationships with self and others.
    *identify criteria for establishing personal boundaries and limits.
    *recognize the need to respect the boundaries of self and others.
    *develop ways to manage inappropriate or unwanted comments or advances from others.
    *practice respectful, honest ways to accept or decline invitations.
    *generate ways to communicate personal boundaries.
    *analyze how societal norms and personal beliefs may influence choices, behavior, and
    relationships; such as gender, culture and ethnicity.
    *identify skills necessary for healthy relationships; e.g., communication, listening and
    *generate ways to open discussions with parents/guardians.
    *identify the role of grief and loss in relationships.
    *develop ways to accept, manage and/or adapt to changes in relationships.
    *identify unhealthy behaviors; e.g., coercion, selfishness, obsession, neediness, control,
    manipulation, apathy and aggression.

    Analyze the results of individual choice and consequences related to drug use and/or

    *identify the different types of drugs in our society. These should include over-the-
    counter (OTC), prescription, herbal, legal/age-restricted, illicit.

    - The drugs that should be discussed in-depth at the 9th grade level include:

    Alcohol Tobacco Marijuana Ecstasy

    Inhalants Steroids LSD Caffeine

    PCP Crystal Meth Heroin Cocaine/Crack

    Date Rape Drugs: Rohypnol, GHB and Ketamine

    *analyze the role of drugs in our society, such as the use in treatment for mental or
    physical disorders, mood altering, escape.
    *identify behaviors, characteristics, and steps on the use / misuse / abuse continuum.
    *develop healthy alternatives to substance use.
    *develop a decision-making process to set personal limits related to substance use.
    *identify consequences of illegal and legal/age-restricted drug use.
    *analyze the impact of personal substance misuse or abuse on family, friends and society;
    e.g., communication skills, financial costs, relationships, life management, services
    *describe responsible use of legal drugs and supplements; e.g., prescription, over-the-
    counter, herbs, vitamins and creatine.
    *apply decision-making skills and values to a variety of legal, social and emotional
    scenarios related to substance use.
    *identify benefits of a strong support system.
    *explain the need for professional intervention when individuals are involved in a
    dependency or other addictive process.
    *compile a list of community/agency resources available to support individuals impacted
    by substance abuse.

    Practice strategies for maintaining healthy personal limits.

    *identify people that may compromise a personal support system.
    *generate ways to open a conversation/discussion with a parent/guardian related to
    personal limits.
    *analyze the influence of an individual’ support system on choices related to substance
    *assess the importance of positive involvement with others in making healthy choices.
    *describe how peers and peer group norms can help support abstinence from substance
    *develop ways of maintaining healthy personal limits when challenged by others.

    Analyze the role of nutrition and physical fitness on an individual’s well-being.

    *describe what constitutes a healthy diet.
    *identify the various parts of the food pyramid and how they should be used.
    *list the seven dietary guidelines.
    *describe what role minerals and vitamins play in a persons diet.
    *explain what metabolism is.
    *determine the benefits of proper food handling and preparation.
    *explain the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats.
    *identify the long-term effects of an unhealthy diet.
    *describe the benefits of physical fitness.
    *critique products or supplements purportedly designed to enhance looks, performance or
    general health.
    *identify the basic nutrients found in each food group; i.e., vitamins, minerals, fats,
    proteins, water and carbohydrates.
    *evaluate various types of foods using the food labels.
    *identify the problems with fast food.
    *strategize ways to manage influences of heredity and prevent disease; e.g., body type,
    diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, cancer and osteoporosis.

    Analyze the impact of body image and other factors on disordered eating.

    *interpret how personal attitudes and beliefs regarding body size and shapes are
    influenced by culture, media, and society.
    *determine the factors that establish and maintain body size and shape; such as
    hereditary, puberty, genetics, diet and environment.
    *explain how self-acceptance impacts eating and exercising patterns.
    *explain the complexity of disordered eating; such as body images, perfectionism,
    control, fear, gratification, esteem and abuse.
    *identify warning signs and short- and long-term effects of disordered eating.
    *compile resources that can help develop a healthy self and/or assist with disordered
    *identify characteristics of a healthy self and body.
    *compare body image and body acceptance and the influence of one on the other.
    *develop strategies for improving body image and acceptance.
    *identify warning signs and short-and long-term effects of disordered eating.
    *identify what anorexia is.
    *identify what bulimia is.
    *identify what obesity is.
    *identify ways to help someone who is experiencing disordered eating.

    Summarize the physical, social, and emotional changes that naturally occur during adolescence.

    *identify physical and emotional changes that occur during adolescence.
    *explain how physical changes may affect one emotionally and socially.
    *explain the anatomy and physiology of the female and male reproductive systems.
    *explain what hormones are and how they affect adolescence.

    Demonstrate the ability to manage unhealthy or dangerous relationships or situations.

    *summarize unhealthy behaviors; such as violence, obsession, coercion, manipulation,
    vanity and control.
    *identify sexual harassment behaviors.
    *determine how media influences a persons idea of what a healthy relationship should be.
    *develop ways to manage sexual harassment in self and others.
    *identify health-related fads and trends.
    *practice advocacy skills and methods.

    Practice assertive communication, problem-solving, and conflict-management skills.

    *identify core values, characteristics and advantages of a safe and caring community.
    *identify emotions that may lead to harming self or others; such as jealousy, frustration,
    anger, sense of failure, grief and euphoria.
    *identify abusive behaviors; such as verbal, emotional, physical and sexual abuse.
    *develop ways to manage abusive behaviors by self or others.
    *develop ways to reinforce healthy decisions made by peers.
    *describe how to access health-related school and community resources.
    *explain the role of conflict in interpersonal relationships.
    *identify warning signs that conflict may be escalating.
    *develop strategies for dealing safely with conflict.
    *practice conflict-management skills and-or strategies.

    Determine the impact of suicide and the importance of prevention.

    *determine the impact of suicide; such as finality and irreversibility, loss of opportunities
    and guilt.
    *identify suicide warnings in self and others.
    *identify factors contributing to suicide risk; such as depression, substance use and abuse,
    coping skills and life-changing events.
    *determine steps that could be taken to help oneself or others to prevent suicide; such as
    questioning, persuasion and referral.

    Demonstrate ability to respond effectively in an emergency situation.

    *identify potentially dangerous situations that could result in intentional or unintentional
    *identify a person(s) to rely on in risky situations.
    *list the elements of a safety plan.
    *create a personal safety plan related to an identified risk.
    *identify emergency numbers and information to be given.
    *identify basic first aid for common medical emergencies.
    *practice CPR and rescue breathing with a Rescue Annie manikin.

    Evaluate the reliability of health information and services based on established criteria.

    *identify a variety of information sources; such as internet, infomercials, pamphlets,
    public health departments, television, telephone books, clinics, health educators and
    guidance counselors.
    *determine media influences on perceptions and choices related to health.
    *analyze current trends in media content
    *predict how exposure to media impacts character and choices, both positively and
    *analyze the role of personal responsibility related to media influences.
    *develop criteria for determining reliability of health information and services.
    *Explain the importance of health maintenance, including breast and testicular self-
    exams, pap smears and annual physical examinations. Analyze the effects of aging on
    the physiological functions and health of reproductive systems; e.g., menopause,
    hormonal changes, prostate and other cancers.

    Determine how abstinence from sexual activity can enhance the development of relationships.

    *identify appropriate ways to show interest and express affection for one another.
    *describe the benefits of sexual abstinence before marriage and fidelity after marriage
    contributes to overall wellness; e.g., physical, emotional, spiritual, mental and social.
    *explain why abstinence before marriage or fidelity after marriage is the best method for
    preventing early and/or unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases.
    *predicted the impact of adolescent parenting; such as on self, child, parent, society.
    *identify means of prevention of early and/or unintended pregnancy and sexually
    transmitted diseases; e.g., abstinence before marriage and fidelity after marriage.
    *identify means and associated limitations of reducing the risks of early and or
    unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections; e.g., disease prevention,
    contraception use.
    *determine how planning ahead can contribute to healthy pregnancy(s), fetal
    development, birth and relationships.
    *explain the values of prenatal care, nutrition, exercise and abstinence.
    *explain the various stages of fetal development and birth.
    *identify factors that may complicate pregnancy and/or contribute to birth defects; e.g.,
    choices, environment, illness, substance use, genetics and nutrition.

    The WACS Health 9 curriculum is abstinence based. The program will enable and encourage young people who have not engaged in sexual intercourse to continue to abstain from sexual intercourse until they establish a mutually monogamous relationship within the context of marriage.

    The WACS Health 9 curriculum must also educate young people who have already engaged in sexual relations. The program will be aimed at helping young people involved in sexual relations to stop engaging in these sexual relations until they establish a mutually monogamous relationship within the context of marriage.

    Under the WACS Health 9 curriculum, an educator may not intentionally elicit comments or questions about the intricacies of sexual intercourse, sexual stimulation or erotic behavior. Responses to questions regarding these topics must be brief, factual and objective. Responses must be appropriate to age and maturity of the students involved.

    Analyze how communicable and non-communicable diseases differ, and the roles of heredity and behavioral choices on each.

    *identify what communicable and non-communicable diseases are.
    *describe what a virus is.
    *describe what a bacteria is.
    *identify methods of prevention for communicable diseases; such as hand washing,
    personal hygiene, immunization, balanced diet, exercise and rest.
    *identify methods of prevention for non-communicable diseases; such as exercise, non-
    use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs, coping skills, balance diet and regular coping

    - The communicable and non-communicable diseases that MUST be discussed in-depth at the 9th grade level include:

    Lyme’s Disease Rabies Cancer Heart Disease

    Stroke Emphysema Cirrhosis Asthma

    Analyze the impact of sexually transmitted diseases (STD’s), including HIV infection.

    *identify what a STD is.
    *identify STD’s that are bacterial.
    *identify STD’s that are viral.

    - The STD’s that MUST be discussed in-depth at the 9th grade level include:

    HIV/AIDS Hepatitis Chlamydia Gonorrhea

    Syphilis Genital Herpes HPV (Genital Warts)

    Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Scabies Pubic Lice

    *describe the general physiology of HIV and Hepatitis.
    *determine the seriousness of HIV and Hepatitis.
    *list the modes of transmission of bacterial STD’s.
    *list the modes of transmission of viral STD’s.
    *determine methods of preventing STD’s, with emphasis on preventing HIV and
    Hepatitis infections.
    *describe how HIV/AIDS not only affects the infected person, but everyone around them
    as well.

    ***In making this curriculum, the following books and documents were used as both guidelines and as references:

    Dahn, V., et. Al ( 1999 ). Health Education Course Description: Health Education ( 7-8 ). Utah State Office of Education and Utah State Office of Higher Education.

    Greenberg, J. and Gold, R. ( 1994 ). Health ( Teacher Ed. ). Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. Orlando, Florida 32887

    Meeks, L., Heit, P. and Page, R. ( 1996 ). Comprehensive School Health: Totally awesome strategies for teaching health, 2nd Edition. Meeks Heit Publishing Company, Inc. Blacklick, OH 43004.

    National Health Education Standards: Achieving Health Literacy. ( 1995 ). American Cancer Society, Inc.

    New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards for Comprehensive Health and Physical Education. ( 1996 ). New Jersey Department of Education.

    New York State Learning Standards for Health Education. ( 1997 ). New York State Department of Education.

    Penale, R., J. ( 1987 ). Physical Education Curriculum. Physical Education Department, Niagara Falls, NY.

    United States Department of Health and Human Services. ( 1991 ). Healthy People 2000: Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.

    Wyoming Health Content and Performance Standards. ( 2000 ). Wyoming Department of Education.