• Westfield Academy and Central School
    Curriculum Outline for Health 7
    Designed in Spring 2002 by Jacob J. Hitchcock***

    Purpose Statement:

    The purpose of health education is to provide opportunities for students to develop knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for practicing lifelong health-enhancing behaviors.

    In correlation with the National Health Education Standards, upon completion of this course students will be able to:

    *comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease prevention.

    *access valid health information and health-promoting products and services.

    *practice both health-enhancing and risk-reducing behaviors.

    *analyze the influences of society, culture, media, technology, and physical environment
    on health.

    *utilize interpersonal communication skills to improve health and relationships.

    *practice and apply goal-setting, decision-making, problem-solving, and stress
    management skills to promote healthy behaviors.

    *advocate for personal, family, and community health.

    *develop understanding and respect for self and others.


    In correlation with the New York State Learning Standards for Health Education, upon completion of this course students will:

    *have the necessary knowledge and skills to establish and maintain physical fitness,
    participate in physical activity, and maintain personal health.

    *acquire the knowledge and ability necessary to create and maintain a safe and healthy
    environment.

    *understand and be able to manage their personal and community resources.



    Core Objective of the Course:
    (In no specified order of application)

    Apply decision-making skills to address an issue.

    *identify factors that influence decision-making; such as peers, parents, media, values,
    emotions, esteem, habits and faith.
    *analyze various decision-making processes.
    *develop an individual decision-making process.

    Analyze the factors that impact mental and emotional health.

    *describe factors that contribute to mental and emotional health; such as self-efficacy,
    resiliency, developmental assets, values, dreams, goals, positive-risk taking, sense of
    purpose.
    *describe factors that interfere with mental and emotional health; such as phobias,
    depression, chemical imbalances, unhealthy use of defense mechanisms, intolerance.
    *distinguish between eustress and distress.
    *describe the stress response and how it influences reactions or performance.
    *describe strategies for managing stressful situations.
    *identify school and community resources to assist with the prevention, intervention, and
    treatment of mental and emotional health problems.

    Analyze the correlation between acceptance of responsibility and personal growth and maturity.

    *identify characteristics of an emotionally and socially mature person.
    *describe how developmental assets contribute to personal growth, success, and wellness.
    *recognize the difference between immediate and delayed gratification.
    *predict the outcomes of being responsible for one’s actions.

    Develop ways to manage and/or adapt to changes in relationships.

    *identify qualities of and ways to build healthy relationships with self and others.
    *identify criteria for establishing personal boundaries and limits.
    *recognize the need to respect the boundaries of self and others.
    *develop ways to manage inappropriate or unwanted comments or advances from others.
    *practice respectful, honest ways to accept or decline invitations.
    *generate ways to communicate personal boundaries.
    *analyze how societal norms and personal beliefs may influence choices, behavior, and
    relationships; such as gender, culture and ethnicity.




    Analyze the results of individual choice and consequences related to drug use and/or
    non-use.

    *identify the different types of drugs in our society. These should include over-the-
    counter (OTC), prescription, herbal, legal/age-restricted, illicit.

    - The drugs that should be discussed in-depth at the 7th grade level include:

    Alcohol Tobacco Marijuana Ecstasy

    Inhalants Steroids LSD Caffeine

    Date Rape Drugs: Rohypnol, GHB and Ketamine


    *analyze the role of drugs in our society, such as the use in treatment for mental or
    physical disorders, mood altering, escape.
    *identify behaviors, characteristics, and steps on the use / misuse / abuse continuum.
    *develop healthy alternatives to substance use.
    *develop a decision-making process to set personal limits related to substance use.

    Practice strategies for maintaining healthy personal limits.

    *identify people that may compromise a personal support system.
    *generate ways to open a conversation/discussion with a parent/guardian related to
    personal limits.
    *analyze the influence of an individual’ support system on choices related to substance
    use.
    *assess the importance of positive involvement with others in making healthy choices.
    *describe how peers and peer group norms can help support abstinence from substance
    use.
    *develop ways of maintaining healthy personal limits when challenged by others.

    Analyze the role of nutrition and physical fitness on an individual’s well-being.

    *describe what constitutes a healthy diet.
    *identify the various parts of the food pyramid and how they should be used.
    *list the seven dietary guidelines.
    *describe what role minerals and vitamins play in a persons diet.
    *explain what metabolism is.
    *determine the benefits of proper food handling and preparation.
    *explain the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats.
    *identify the long-term effects of an unhealthy diet.
    *describe the benefits of physical fitness.
    *critique products or supplements purportedly designed to enhance looks, performance or
    general health.
    Analyze the impact of body image and other factors on disordered eating.

    *interpret how personal attitudes and beliefs regarding body size and shapes are
    influenced by culture, media, and society.
    *determine the factors that establish and maintain body size and shape; such as
    hereditary, puberty, genetics, diet and environment.
    *explain how self-acceptance impacts eating and exercising patterns.
    *explain the complexity of disordered eating; such as body images, perfectionism,
    control, fear, gratification, esteem and abuse.
    *identify warning signs and short- and long-term effects of disordered eating.
    *compile resources that can help develop a healthy self and/or assist with disordered
    eating.

    Summarize the physical, social, and emotional changes that naturally occur during adolescence.

    *identify physical and emotional changes that occur during adolescence.
    *explain how physical changes may affect one emotionally and socially.
    *explain the anatomy and physiology of the female and male reproductive systems.
    *explain what hormones are and how they affect adolescence.

    Demonstrate the ability to manage unhealthy or dangerous relationships or situations.

    *summarize unhealthy behaviors; such as violence, obsession, coercion, manipulation,
    vanity and control.
    *identify sexual harassment behaviors.
    *determine how media influences a persons idea of what a healthy relationship should be.
    *develop ways to manage sexual harassment in self and others.

    Practice assertive communication, problem-solving, and conflict-management skills.

    *identify core values, characteristics and advantages of a safe and caring community.
    *identify emotions that may lead to harming self or others; such as jealousy, frustration,
    anger, sense of failure, grief and euphoria.
    *identify abusive behaviors; such as verbal, emotional, physical and sexual abuse.
    *develop ways to manage abusive behaviors by self or others.
    *develop ways to reinforce healthy decisions made by peers.
    *describe how to access health-related school and community resources.








    Determine the impact of suicide and the importance of prevention.

    *determine the impact of suicide; such as finality and irreversibility, loss of opportunities
    and guilt.
    *identify suicide warnings in self and others.
    *identify factors contributing to suicide risk; such as depression, substance use and abuse,
    coping skills and life-changing events.
    *determine steps that could be taken to help oneself or others to prevent suicide; such as
    questioning, persuasion and referral.

    Demonstrate ability to respond effectively in an emergency situation.

    *identify potentially dangerous situations that could result in intentional or unintentional
    injury.
    *identify a person(s) to rely on in risky situations.
    *list the elements of a safety plan.
    *create a personal safety plan related to an identified risk.
    *identify emergency numbers and information to be given.
    *identify basic first aid for common medical emergencies.
    *practice CPR and rescue breathing with a Rescue Annie manikin.

    Evaluate the reliability of health information and services based on established criteria.

    *identify a variety of information sources; such as internet, infomercials, pamphlets,
    public health departments, television, telephone books, clinics, health educators and
    guidance counselors.
    *determine media influences on perceptions and choices related to health.
    *analyze current trends in media content
    *predict how exposure to media impacts character and choices, both positively and
    negatively.
    *analyze the role of personal responsibility related to media influences.
    *develop criteria for determining reliability of health information and services.

    Determine how abstinence from sexual activity can enhance the development of relationships.

    *identify ways to show interest and express affection for one another.
    *describe the benefits of sexual abstinence before marriage and fidelity after marriage as
    a means of preventing certain communicable diseases.
    *explain why abstinence before marriage or fidelity after marriage is the best method for
    preventing early and/or unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases.
    *predicted the impact of adolescent parenting; such as on self, child, parent, society.




    Analyze how communicable and non-communicable diseases differ, and the roles of heredity and behavioral choices on each.

    *identify what communicable and non-communicable diseases are.
    *describe what a virus is.
    *describe what a bacteria is.
    *identify methods of prevention for communicable diseases; such as hand washing,
    personal hygiene, immunization, balanced diet, exercise and rest.
    *identify methods of prevention for non-communicable diseases; such as exercise, non-
    use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs, coping skills, balance diet and regular coping
    skills.

    - The communicable and non-communicable diseases that MUST be discussed in-depth at the 7th grade level include:

    Lyme’s Disease Rabies Cancer Heart Disease

    Stroke Emphysema Cirrhosis

    Analyze the impact of sexually transmitted diseases (STD’s), including HIV infection.

    *identify what a STD is.
    *identify STD’s that are bacterial.
    *identify STD’s that are viral.

    - The STD’s that MUST be discussed in-depth at the 7th grade level include:

    HIV Hepatitis

    *describe the general physiology of HIV and Hepatitis.
    *determine the seriousness of HIV and Hepatitis.
    *list the modes of transmission of bacterial STD’s.
    *list the modes of transmission of viral STD’s.
    *determine methods of preventing STD’s, with emphasis on preventing HIV and
    Hepatitis infections.
    *describe how HIV/AIDS not only affects the infected person, but everyone around them
    as well.









    ***In making this curriculum, the following books and documents were used as both guidelines and as references:

    Dahn, V., et. Al ( 1999 ). Health Education Course Description: Health Education ( 7-8 ). Utah State Office of Education and Utah State Office of Higher Education.

    Greenberg, J. and Gold, R. ( 1994 ). Health ( Teacher Ed. ). Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. Orlando, Florida 32887

    Meeks, L., Heit, P. and Page, R. ( 1996 ). Comprehensive School Health: Totally awesome strategies for teaching health, 2nd Edition. Meeks Heit Publishing Company, Inc. Blacklick, OH 43004.

    National Health Education Standards: Achieving Health Literacy. ( 1995 ). American Cancer Society, Inc.

    New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards for Comprehensive Health and Physical Education. ( 1996 ). New Jersey Department of Education.

    New York State Learning Standards for Health Education. ( 1997 ). New York State Department of Education.

    Penale, R., J. ( 1987 ). Physical Education Curriculum. Physical Education Department, Niagara Falls, NY.

    United States Department of Health and Human Services. ( 1991 ). Healthy People 2000: Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.

    Wyoming Health Content and Performance Standards. ( 2000 ). Wyoming Department of Education.